Built-in Exception Classes

NoMemoryError

Raised when memory allocation fails.

NoMemoryError Reference

ScriptError

ScriptError is the superclass for errors raised when a script can not be executed because of a LoadError, NotImplementedError or a SyntaxError. Note these type of ScriptErrors are not StandardError and will not be rescued unless it is specified explicitly (or its ancestor Exception).

ScriptError Reference

LoadError

Raised when a file required (a Ruby script, extension library, …) fails to load.

require 'this/file/does/not/exist'

raises the exception:

LoadError: no such file to load -- this/file/does/not/exist

LoadError Reference

NotImplementedError

Raised when a feature is not implemented on the current platform. For example, methods depending on the fsync or fork system calls may raise this exception if the underlying operating system or Ruby runtime does not support them.

Note that if fork raises a NotImplementedError, then respond_to?(:fork) returns false.

NotImplementedError Reference

SyntaxError

Raised when encountering Ruby code with an invalid syntax.

eval("1+1=2")

raises the exception:

SyntaxError: (eval):1: syntax error, unexpected '=', expecting $end

SyntaxError Reference

SecurityError

Raised when attempting a potential unsafe operation, typically when the $SAFE level is raised above 0.

foo = "bar"
proc = Proc.new do
  $SAFE = 3
  foo.untaint
end
proc.call

raises the exception:

SecurityError: Insecure: Insecure operation `untaint` at level 3

SecurityError Reference

SignalException

Raised when a signal is received.

begin
  Process.kill('HUP',Process.pid)
  sleep # wait for receiver to handle signal sent by Process.kill
rescue SignalException => e
  puts "received Exception #{e}"
end

produces:

received Exception SIGHUP

SignalException Reference

Interrupt

Raised when the interrupt signal is received, typically because the user has pressed Control-C (on most posix platforms). As such, it is a subclass of SignalException.

begin
  puts "Press ctrl-C when you get bored"
  loop {}
rescue Interrupt => e
  puts "Note: You will typically use Signal.trap instead."
end

produces:

Press ctrl-C when you get bored

then waits until it is interrupted with Control-C and then prints:

Note: You will typically use Signal.trap instead.

Interrupt Reference

StandardError

The most standard error types are subclasses of StandardError. A rescue clause without an explicit Exception class will rescue all StandardErrors (and only those).

def foo
  raise "Oups"
end
foo rescue "Hello"   #=> "Hello"

On the other hand:

require 'does/not/exist' rescue "Hi"

raises the exception:

LoadError: no such file to load -- does/not/exist

StandardError Reference

ArgumentError

Raised when the arguments are wrong and there isn’t a more specific Exception class.

Ex: passing the wrong number of arguments

[1, 2, 3].first(4, 5)

raises the exception:

ArgumentError: wrong number of arguments (given 2, expected 1)

Ex: passing an argument that is not acceptable:

[1, 2, 3].first(-4)

raises the exception:

ArgumentError: negative array size

ArgumentError Reference

UncaughtThrowError

Raised when throw is called with a tag which does not have corresponding catch block.

throw "foo", "bar"

raises the exception:

UncaughtThrowError: uncaught throw "foo"

UncaughtThrowError Reference

EncodingError

EncodingError is the base class for encoding errors.

EncodingError Reference

FiberError

Raised when an invalid operation is attempted on a Fiber, in particular when attempting to call/resume a dead fiber, attempting to yield from the root fiber, or calling a fiber across threads.

fiber = Fiber.new{}
fiber.resume #=> nil
fiber.resume #=> FiberError: dead fiber called

FiberError Reference

IOError

Raised when an IO operation fails.

File.open("/etc/hosts") {|f| f << "example"}
  #=> IOError: not opened for writing

File.open("/etc/hosts") {|f| f.close; f.read }
  #=> IOError: closed stream

Note that some IO failures raise `SystemCallError’s and these are not subclasses of IOError:

File.open("does/not/exist")
  #=> Errno::ENOENT: No such file or directory - does/not/exist

IOError Reference

EOFError

Raised by some IO operations when reaching the end of file. Many IO methods exist in two forms,

one that returns nil when the end of file is reached, the other raises EOFError.

EOFError is a subclass of IOError.

file = File.open("/etc/hosts")
file.read
file.gets     #=> nil
file.readline #=> EOFError: end of file reached

EOFError Reference

IndexError

Raised when the given index is invalid.

a = [:foo, :bar]
a.fetch(0)   #=> :foo
a[4]         #=> nil
a.fetch(4)   #=> IndexError: index 4 outside of array bounds: -2...2

IndexError Reference

KeyError

Raised when the specified key is not found. It is a subclass of IndexError.

h = {"foo" => :bar}
h.fetch("foo") #=> :bar
h.fetch("baz") #=> KeyError: key not found: "baz"

KeyError Reference

StopIteration

Raised to stop the iteration, in particular by Enumerator#next. It is rescued by Kernel#loop.

loop do
  puts "Hello"
  raise StopIteration
  puts "World"
end
puts "Done!"

produces:

Hello
Done!

StopIteration Reference

ClosedQueueError

The exception class which will be raised when pushing into a closed Queue. See Queue#close and SizedQueue#close.

ClosedQueueError Reference

LocalJumpError

Raised when Ruby can’t yield as requested.

A typical scenario is attempting to yield when no block is given:

def call_block
  yield 42
end
call_block

raises the exception:

LocalJumpError: no block given (yield)

A more subtle example:

def get_me_a_return
  Proc.new { return 42 }
end
get_me_a_return.call

raises the exception:

LocalJumpError: unexpected return

LocalJumpError Reference

NameError

Raised when a given name is invalid or undefined.

puts foo

raises the exception:

NameError: undefined local variable or method `foo` for main:Object

Since constant names must start with a capital:

Integer.const_set :answer, 42

raises the exception:

NameError: wrong constant name answer

NameError Reference

NoMethodError

Raised when a method is called on a receiver which doesn’t have it defined and also fails to respond with method_missing.

"hello".to_ary

raises the exception:

NoMethodError: undefined method `to_ary` for "hello":String

NoMethodError Reference

RangeError

Raised when a given numerical value is out of range.

[1, 2, 3].drop(1 << 100)

raises the exception:

RangeError: bignum too big to convert into `long`

RangeError Reference

FloatDomainError

Raised when attempting to convert special float values (in particular Infinity or NaN) to numerical classes which don’t support them.

Float::INFINITY.to_r   #=> FloatDomainError: Infinity

FloatDomainError Reference

RegexpError

Raised when given an invalid regexp expression.

Regexp.new("?")

raises the exception:

RegexpError: target of repeat operator is not specified: /?/

RegexpError Reference

RuntimeError

A generic error class raised when an invalid operation is attempted. Kernel#raise will raise a RuntimeError if no Exception class is specified.

raise "ouch"

raises the exception:

RuntimeError: ouch

RuntimeError Reference

FrozenError

Raised when there is an attempt to modify a frozen object.

[1, 2, 3].freeze << 4

raises the exception:

FrozenError: can't modify frozen Array

FrozenError Reference

SystemCallError

SystemCallError is the base class for all low-level platform-dependent errors.

The errors available on the current platform are subclasses of SystemCallError and are defined in the Errno module.

File.open("does/not/exist")

raises the exception:

Errno::ENOENT: No such file or directory - does/not/exist

SystemCallError Reference

Errno

Ruby exception objects are subclasses of Exception. However, operating systems typically report errors using plain integers. Module Errno is created dynamically to map these operating system errors to Ruby classes, with each error number generating its own subclass of SystemCallError. As the subclass is created in module Errno, its name will start Errno::.

The names of the Errno:: classes depend on the environment in which Ruby runs. On a typical Unix or Windows platform, there are Errno classes such as Errno::EACCES, Errno::EAGAIN, Errno::EINTR, and so on.

The integer operating system error number corresponding to a particular error is available as the class constant Errno::error::Errno.

Errno::EACCES::Errno   #=> 13
Errno::EAGAIN::Errno   #=> 11
Errno::EINTR::Errno    #=> 4

The full list of operating system errors on your particular platform are available as the constants of Errno.

Errno.constants   #=> :E2BIG, :EACCES, :EADDRINUSE, :EADDRNOTAVAIL, ...

Errno Reference

ThreadError

Raised when an invalid operation is attempted on a thread.

For example, when no other thread has been started:

Thread.stop

This will raises the following exception:

ThreadError: stopping only thread
note: use sleep to stop forever

ThreadError Reference

TypeError

Raised when encountering an object that is not of the expected type.

[1, 2, 3].first("two")

raises the exception:

TypeError: no implicit conversion of String into Integer

TypeError Reference

ZeroDivisionError

Raised when attempting to divide an integer by 0.

42 / 0   #=> ZeroDivisionError: divided by 0

Note that only division by an exact 0 will raise the exception:

42 /  0.0   #=> Float::INFINITY
42 / -0.0   #=> -Float::INFINITY
0  /  0.0   #=> NaN

ZeroDivisionError Reference

SystemExit

Raised by exit to initiate the termination of the script.

SystemExit Reference

SystemStackError

Raised in case of a stack overflow.

def me_myself_and_i
  me_myself_and_i
end
me_myself_and_i

raises the exception:

SystemStackError: stack level too deep

SystemStackError Reference

fatal

fatal is an Exception that is raised when Ruby has encountered a fatal error and must exit. You are not able to rescue fatal.

fatal Reference